Timeline 1950-2000

This entry provides a simple listing of some important dates in the history of diabetes from 1950-2000, described in more detail in the accompanying article. So much happened over this period that important dates have undoubtedly been omitted: readers are invited to add to the list.

1951: Primary sequence of bovine insulin determined by Frederick Sanger

1956: Bromer deduces the molecular sequence of glucagon.

1958: Tolbutamide, the first oral (sulfonylurea) treatment for diabetes

1962: Radioimmunoassay of insulin by Berson and Yalow

1966: Introduction of the biguanides phenformin (later withdrawn) and metformin

1967: Proinsulin and C-peptide identified by Don Steiner

1969: Tertiary structure of insulin determined by Dorothy Hodgkin 1969: First results from UGDP

1974: Islet cell antibodies described by Franco Bottazzo HLA associations of juvenile diabetes described by Jørn Nerup

1976: The terms type 1 & type 2 diabetes are reintroduced by Andrew Cudworth

1977: First paper on HbA1c and glucose control in diabetes

1978: First papers on home blood glucose monitoring published

1979: Creutzfeldt reintroduces the incretin concept

1980: Structure of the insulin gene published by David Owerbach and co-workers

1982: Biosynthetic human insulin produced.

1992: Glucokinase gene mutations linked to type 2 diabetes and MODY 1992: First clinical studies with GLP-1

1993: Publication of DCCT results

1996: Insulin lispro becomes the first insulin analogue to be marketed

1997: Launch of troglitazone, the first thiazolidinedione, later withdrawn

1998: Publication of UKPDS results

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